November 16, 2007
FoE2: Mobile Media

The first panel at FoE2 is focused on mobile media.

Participating in the panel are:

  • Marc Davis (Yahoo)
  • Bob Schukai (Turner Broadcasting)
  • Alice Kim (MTV Networks)
  • Anmol Madan: Madan (MIT Media Lab)

And, joining the live-blogging effort are current C3 researchers Xiaochang Li and Lauren Silberman.

Joshua Green: Let's talk about the mobile media space. Unfortunately, Francesco could not join us today. Asks the panel to introduce themselves by answering the question "What keeps you up in the evening in cold sweats?"

Alice Kim, MTV Networks: Mobile, online syndication, and all the new alternative platforms that are coming. In terms of mobile, we are definitely in a sea of change and there is a degree of openness. All the things we've been speaking about, we're now seeing. Yahoo, iPhone -- they're really challenging the idea of walled garden. Really trying to understand the new business models, how do we make this relevant in our space. All are creating a degree of openness.

There are lots of things coming to bear with Google and yahoo -- they are interesting as content provider and as a means to understand new models.

Marc Davis, Yahoo, Social Media Guru: Runs teams at Yahoo called ESP, and reports to the head of mobile. Research is a string, you can't push, only pull. He focuses on mobile, social media, monetization and platforms and the intersection of all of those.

5 billion people will have cell phones by 2010. By 2010 most people will be connected to the web, but not the web of today tied to laptops. Phones will help us solve problem of getting access to billions living on less than a dollar a day.

Phones that people have today, like Nokia 195, have built-in GPS and high quality video and that are easily programmable. In 3 years, expect phones to be recording, connected. Expect billions of people producing and sharing video content all over the planet. The world of media will be billions of people producing and sharing in real time.

Anmol Madan: Madan, MIT Media Lab, PhD Candidate [note: due to some sound problems, it was difficult for the live bloggers to hear Anmol]: By mining patterns of activity, proximity and media consumption, he's trying to create the next generation of mobile media applications that comprehend the user's social behavior. Main interests center around sharing media.

Bob Schukai, Turner Broadcasting, VP: Was at Motorola helping to launch 3G business development. 80% of RD work at wireless and broadband outside the US. He will be the guy to rain on parade: the US is falling way behind the rest of the world technologically. We are now second class in mobile and broadband. Korea and Hong Kong, 100mb into the home is normal consumer offering. Exciting services like TV require a lot of bandwidth. We are absolutely 2 years behind europe and 3 to 4 years behind asia. We can learn a lot from other countries and translate those to our market.

Joshua Green: What accounts for why the US is so far behind?

Bob Schukai: Back in the 90s when digital cell was launching in the states, we didn't agree on standard like Europe, but FCC said let the best tech win. We have several different standards and patchwork networks.

What's the last TV commercial? What is it? It's the network (Cingular/AT&T). In the US we are still talking about coverage. Rest of the world is way past that. There are guys breaking business models by putting skype on a phone. So many people are willing to try different things.

Joshua Green Is it standard-setting that we need to move forward?

Marc Davis: For most people on the planet, the idea of having wireless on phone is very expensive, and therefore not consumer level proposition. When it's just a part of your broadband service, that will change. There is also the difficulty of software development, handset programming language barrier. It's much more difficult than on the internet. Biggest problem is cost of data. The Internet, content, telecommunications -- there things are all coming together. They are all fighting with different business models. But we're all interested in advertising. That's the big shift. The possibility of getting data from this device that's for advertising.

Joshua Green: Coming from a content perspective, how can we make things better?

Alice Kim: This is a debate that has been on going for years. Standards are an issues, business models are an issue. How do we provide content? Less than a quarter of the continent actually access video on a regular basis. The user behavior just isn't there yet. It could be a scale issue - once you get critical mass and people are used to seeing and sharing video. But how do we get critical mass? It's a questions of pricing plans. That's why advertising is so interesting. Right now, cost is burden of operators. Is there a way to expand ecosystem to include multi-million ad budgets? Can we make the content more readily available?

Bob Schukai: We are all sitting here trying to drive content. If you're having so many people using it, you will crash the cell. We are built for coverage not services. Biggest percentage of the margin is text message not video.

We've got to lead people very gently into text messaging. I feel sorry for people who have RAZRs -- it's the worst interface ever.

Marc Davis: Carriers have an incredible monopoly. Once you have cheap internet and AIM on phone, they can't get money off SMS. Paying for a service and paying for messaging on top of very low value.

Joshua Green: Can we push this down to a user level?

Amnol Madan: If you actually had applications like skype from wifi . . . The hardest problem is integration. You have 6 different operating systems. By locking our applications, by locking our people, you make users dependent on networks. It all goes back to consumption.

Joshua Green: This is heading towards inoperability between networks, busness models based on proprietary networks. Can we talk through walled gardens and how this makes market sense and how to break that? The iPhone and Nokia -- in these cases, access to the real Internet is the selling point.

Some of it comes down to user experience. Browsers on early phone couldn't handle internet content. 70% mobile phone internet traffic is off-deck. Part of walled-garden is just convenience. Aggregation provided by networks and makes things easier. Off-deck, everyone in the content space knows that the walls coming down. It made sense when it was hard for the tech, but now the walls must come down.

Marc Davis: Part of the problem with the iPhone is the touch screen. Without mouse, it's hard to navigate the web on a phone. There are still very large technology barriers. Mobile web content and web content are very different. That's changing mobile webs online. Browsers are getting better, phones are getting better. We're at that convergence time, just now.

In terms of content and user experience: We now have data camera to track location. It's not just about consuming content on these phones, but more importantly about producing content.

Alice Kim: As the content provider, the fact that the mobile argument was so new and people were not using it a number of years ago, and they created a billing system to market content. There was a way at the time to understand how to make money here. The mobile-ness should not be the endpoint. The mobile device is unique, and can do things that Internet can't. We are developing stuff just for mobile. For example, Lil Bush started out on mobile, then went to Comedy Central and has been renewed for a second season. We have to see mobile not just as an extension but a unique environment and unique platform onto itself. MTV got into mobile space because there was a clear business model there. You can do stuff with mobile devices you can't do with the internet. We don't know what's going to work and what's not going to work. We have seen a lot of stuff, and we're still experimenting. We're waiting for the interactivity to come to fruition. ITV is where it comes to fruition. Mobile has been key to growth of interactivity -- more than the remote control. For instance, just look at American Idol.

You can consume content and share content on mobile device, which you can't do today, even within carriers don't have ability for that interactivity. We're still waiting to jump to next level of mobile content production.

Joshua Green: Take a minute to talk about how we might be able to make smarter devices that take advantage of the content when we consider socialness.

Marc Davis: Thanks for the softball. It's important to understand what a phone is. How many of you read text everyday? Write? For the last 20 years this question has been asked and more are raising hands. The phone is a programmable video cam connected to the internet. Sony missed the opportunity. Video camera connected to the internet can do amazing things. The real opportunity is using phone and what it can do as a medium for production. Production becomes really powerful--we've built systems that know where/when content was produced because cause the phone is locatable on the network. There is now the possibility is large scale production.

Audience: Shouts question about something about phone.

Bob Schukai: What's the primary purpose? It's to make a phone call. We as a mobile industry love launching new things.

Marc Davis: The seminal event that really affected this was london bombing. Those first pictures were not from BBC CNN, but from phones on Flickr. Same with the Virginia Tech shooting. People understood for the first time what it was to have people on the ground, covering and sharing it.

We have something called ZoneTag, which allows you to record meta-data about photos and video, suggests description for content based on what other people have posted.

Photos he's taken KNOW they are at this event in Cambridge, in this zip code and the content gets put on a common map. This makes content production possible in terms of making the real world a diegetic realm.

The new diegetic realm is where mobile allows stories to live in real time in the real world. We can go to NYC and visit the fantasy world of Heroes. News is going to be the first frontier, like the London Bombings. Ten years from now if we're still in Iraq, what does news look like if everyone's taking streaming video and putting it online with their phones? Companies must look carefully at idea of what it looks like to have users are producers. Geo-aware content production is going to be made by billions of people around the world.

Bob Schukai: Users are producers and mobile is the technology that will shift this. From a social standpoint, with these kind of devices your life isn't private anymore. Things you do can end up on youtube. These problems in which we're all looking for that 20 seconds of fame, that will cause backlash.

Anmol Madan: You start thinking of these devices as behavior recognition devices, not just mobile devices. A lot of market behavior you can mine from these devices. A lot of it is thinking about how you use credit card or writing, what are the ground rules, how do you use these features, mine them and secure them on the device, what are the legal issues?

Joshua Green: how can we respond to the challenge? Allowing participation, and interaction with business models, and deal with privacy questions.

Marc Davis: You have to think about advertising shifting from a model of disruption to being a model of a gift. We can use social connections to share info that can be useful to each other. Is this an ad? No, it's a gift. But It has to be done in a way that protects people's privacy. You'll see business models where users will own their own data, they will have to. And it's crucial that they'll have rights to this data, but that they can exchange and share that. We have to provide people with what they want and when they want it and protect their privacy.

Bob Schukai: There is a fundamental generation gap here. But people are reticent to get ads pushed to their phone. But younger generation so used to having ads pushed at us that it doesn't really bother them. Test for a CNN weather alert -- people didn't like that the service knew where they were, even though it was meant to protect their safety, save their lives. It's going to take a real mind-shift, but I think it's a generation issues. Sub-35 will be much more willing to take this on than an older crowd.

Alice Kim: Good point. The demographic used to being bombarded is the anti-commercial demographic. The TiVo demographic is used to ads but also most anti-commercial because they're used to bypassing traditional forms of advertising. What's we're seeing are news forms of advertising. Original sponsored content productions. Millennial demographics, part curator, part programmer, part consumer, much much more savvy than our generation. There is much more innovative in content production. MTVN is embracing this community.

Joshua Green: There seems to be a divide between entertainment and social content -- if you're being tracked by corporations selling insurance, we get uneasy. Does entertainment content make us less uneasy?

Marc Davis: The question is bounded with privacy. Fireeagle is a location platform with privacy if built in. The granularity matters a lot -- saying I'm at MIT is fine. Spatial granularity -- we have ability to build in capability to
determine amount of info we disclose -- the ability to set permissions for what people can know about us.

Bob Schukai: In Korea, you have ability to track your friends on a map using your phone. Certain people will publish these things, and other people will publish this information for others on their phone. For other people this won't cut it -- you have to address them differently.

Marc Davis: Many people are willing to drag a photo onto a map and say this is where I am. We're starting to build a map of what's interesting in the world. Before, programmers determined what was interesting. Now it's users. All the photos taken at this event could be linked, geo-spatially coded into a network, and all the coverage would be accessible. There's also tag maps -- the ability to add information to the places that people find interesting. We're building a collective map of human attention, and that's what media is becoming.

Joshua Green: Where is innovation coming from? What is interesting?

Marc Davis: There's a tremendous amount of innovation.

Amnol Madan: Something's becoming real. Instead of creating the next innovative idea, platform consolidation is going to be the exciting thing in location based services .Before you had one application -- now we see multiple platforms.

Bob Schukai: There's plenty of innovation. But he's more interested in people breaking business models. We're not going to follow the rules anymore. Look at Europe -- there were plans where you taking data tariffs with you when you roam. After two weeks in korea, roaming made a $1700 phone bill. but if somebody gave you the same flat rate worldwide,
that to me is interesting. Let's put skype on the phone, where you can talk anywhere you want. Innovation is the least of our problems -- we need to break down existing business models and move the market in a different way. likes that Google is leading the field with attaching any device to any network. If you're Verizon, you do have legit concerns about hanging any device on your network. Interoperability is key, we need to work in emergency situations, we need to have privacy, but if people don't come in like this to break down status quo, we'll never move forward. Now we're seeing mobile bundles with a sling box. We are seeing innovation with business models.

Marc Davis: Carriers have a different business model in US that elsewhere. That trade-off of how much people are willing to watch ads for service is what needs to be explored right now. The best platform to understand what people want is the phone. That's why we'll break these barriers. Ads will come to be the dominant way the Internet works.

Joshua Green: What are the implications of Google and Apple, companies with no history in these spaces suddenly entering the market? Can you talk about significance (or lack thereof) of these players, cause they bring with them customer good will, but also new potential.

Bob Schukai: Importance of Apple is that gere's a company that says you can have our phone, but you're going to give us revenues from every phone call. That's a massive, arrogant, big cahones move. You have to break the same mentalities that have been running the business. Google, however, I'm not sure what to say about. They're massive, they want to break things down, but because of their size, don't you start to wonder what their motives are? Google has a similar kind of opportunity, especially if they choose to buy spectrum, to make a significant impact on business and move the US further along.

Anmol Madan:: I have a lot of respect for Steve Jobs, and I also have a lot of respect for people writing code for these devices. What's happened in open source spaces is that we can run an entire website from an iPhone. Even with no support from apple for these apps.

Marc Davis: Really the question is about scale and distribution. The iPhone is 0.1% of a global market. What we've done with our stuff from motorola is provide an environment on a 100 million phones. Scale matters.

Key is having to be more open infrastructure. Google's move is great for the industry. We're excited by the partnerships to open up devices.

Bob Schukai: The future happens at different rates around the world. The events we are seeing happening in the US will hopefully get us to a place where people already are in other parts of the world. Look to China, Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile in US is really behind Korea, China, Japan, and India. At the lower end of the spectrum, we're focusing on Apple, but hundreds of millions are coming online in india via 20 dollar phones. That's why text messaging is so important.

Alice Kim: The iPhone was a wake-up call, a call to action. For the first time in the history of mobile in the user, the focus was really on the user interface. For the iPhone, it's on the edge where the data rate is really low, so it's not a great phone experience. But showed that consumers care about user interface. Users have said for years that it's hard to find stuff on your phone, labeling things MMS, SMS -- it's not user friendly. Calling things apps is not consumer friendly. How do you lead consumers from piece of mobile to another? The carries focus has shifted. They are now starting to think about it from the consumer experience.

In terms of Google, we're really excited that all these participants are entering marketplace because it is about scale. Carriers are aggregators and these companies understand that, and they are entering mobile now.

It's not easy to enter the same framework in the online space because it isn't open like the Internet is open. It is giving consumers a larger voice in the industry. Consumers need a platform to develop on. In mobile, what is open? Really the Google Android is just another platform we have to develop more. Until it progresses further, open has a very closed meaning to it.


Joshua Green: What do you think will happen if Google bids for and wins 700mhz spectrum option.

Bob Schukai: If they win spectrum, this can be nothing but good for US consumers. The US market has been hamstrung. You're probably locked into contracts and fees, and if you're subscribed to video, when was the last time you've used it? If Google comes in and wins spectrum, they have an opportunity to shake up business. But there's a caveat: we also have to be aware of potential fragmentation. We're good at creating tech, but bad at marketing it and creating scale. The best technology doesn't always win.

Marc Davis: It's important too at this point to make the industry open, to have content flow over it.

The crucial thing is whether or not you can write software and services on top of distribution platform that consumers can afford to access. We're in one of these major transition towards a market place where people can actually share content. Spectrum will be less of an issue.

Alice Kim: One thing I want to highlight is that Google is an ad powerhouse and brought ads as business model for monetizing the web and allow individuals to monetize web on smallest of scale, to smallest of content providers.

Marc Davis: Search is crucial for the discovery of content and services. The carrier model of having on-deck content -- it's like Prodigy from the old days. When you have mobile search, you have access to greater resources.

Question: Can you comment about openness, and in general what mobile platform means for entertainment?Openness is not all the same, companies go we want perpetual rights to all your IP says this to developers. We have to understand mobile platform as its own platform. And I see some use of physical space. But when does it become entertaining? All these people are approaching from info standpoint, but it's not entertainment. Is there going to be something long form, immersive, highly personal?

Marc Davis: We've seen some interesting experiments for augmented reality such as Jane McGonigal ARG's. This key question is what is the story world? If you know where a person is and you have a map of the physical world,
these things start to connect. Being a body connect to other human beings is t the best MMORPG. The best potential entertainment forms is to play in the world using these devices.

Anmol Madan: Part of being immersive is who the users are. The more users you get on to the service, the more likely . . .

Bob Schukai: Go to korea you have massive commutes and amounts of time to watch TV on your phone. Because in certain cultures you have this long commute. There's a lot of time to do stuff and be entertained. In the US there is predominantly a driving culture and entertainment is a back seat babysitter. This presents a dichotomy between long-form and short-form. We have pockets of microboredom where you want to go do something really quick. Both sets will truly
exist in the marketplace, but it is dependent on your personal day and what you find entertaining. If you're on a long flight, it's long form. That's the beauty of the business. Quite honestly, we don't care about technology, we love distribution networks. As long as we can retain your experience with our brands, we are pretty happy at the end of the day.

Question: From Turner: one of the fields I'm interested in is metadata. Search tools are beautiful but if metadata isn't there, you'll find everything or nothing, both useless. How do you guys see user-generated metadata and it's importance.

Marc Davis: That's the beauty of the phone. The phone, unlike the camera, knows where I am when I take the picture. Most of the metadata is computer generated. All that is automatically added to the phone. Mobile will be the break through for media editing.

Question: I can see how that would be useful for user-generated content, but does MTV allow users to create the metadata? Who owns the meta-data?

Alice Kim: Metadata goes out with our files, and we optimize the feed for the mobile search companies like yahoo et al. We work with everybody to optimize those feeds. We also allow tagging. Consumers are going the tagging online, and that ports over to the mobile space. This connects to things said in the beginning in regards to IP and copyright -- what happens if you tag South Park? As much as we want to give consumers tools, and want them to be programmers, at the end of the day we have brand equity to protect.

A lot of these things we're still trying to work through, feel our way through.

Joshua Green: What are the social effects of hyper connectivity? How do you negotiate these issues?

Marc Davis: It changes the nature of what media is. We see this in Flickr already. Photography used to be framing an image, but now it is status casting. It's about broadcasting my day. Nature of what an image can be is changing. Now its a social experience.

Bob Schukai: But awareness comes with privacy risks. You're caught on cam in London several times per day. People are willing to trade privacy for security. But in mobile phones, people are in an uproar, even though they're being watched anyway. People need to see the tangible benefits and decide the boundaries that are most relevant so it doesn't become an invasion.

Anmol Madan: One of the hard questions to think about if you have many streams of media and you're connected, is how do you go to all this information.

Marc Davis: Granularity is crucial. That ability for users to have their privacy and have control over it is core. The other issue is data ownership. Not just how this privacy is controlled but how it is being broadcast out.

Alice Kim: Also interesting is social/cultural expectation. Email used to be rare and not everyone was connected. Now we expect to be connected. Conversations happen via email, you're expected to be there all the time. There a good and bad to that, there's a real time aspect. And now the social expectation is becoming more prevalent. People expect to know what you're doing all the time, people expect to expose their private lives. The sense of what's private is changing. Now the question of privacy is much narrower. The social trend is that the issues that they face will be the same, but the definitions will change.

Marc Davis: There's been a shift on the internet from anonymity to real lives being led online. Mobile bridges that gap. People living lives online are living them as themselves now.

Alice Kim: The other thing too is that we're also bringing the real world to online. Like virtual LES, where it is the LES of manhattan, and everything is as it would be in real life. It's like the two are coming together.

Question: You talk about 1 billion $20 cell phone in india, and long driving commutes in US. What application has there been for voice -- everything here has been visual. Where is voice in all of this?

Bob Schukai: Speech-text has been around forever. People are generally not that comfortable communicating to their device. You kind of feel stupid saying "call Fred." There's a whole user behavior thing. There are some companies doing voice-based things. Taking text messages and turning them into voice-based product is really simple, but people
aren't using it. Voice is probably most under-appreciated part of the technology. We tend to focus on the phones at the far end of the spectrum, and most of the world will not use high end phones. The other question is languages. We're using to thinking about American English, but try to get all the dialects in India and China. You can't get the processing power for that on $20 phones.

Marc Davis: Processing power is crucial. Moores law is helpful in a few years, we will have voice interfaces for phones.

Question: Why can't the processing be in the network?

Bob Schukai: Because the networks are terrible-- they're just built for coverage.

Question: Networks are built to send and receive, but can't processor be on a server?

Bob Schukai: Watch how long it takes just for a few bits of info for a mobile URL to be sent.

Marc Davis: Mobile is dial up today.

Question: Go back to granularity conversation. Where concern falls is as it filters out is that most people won't monitor it, for instance with Facebook, people just assume other people won't see it. The question is media literacy -- what can providers do to help people understand how it works and how to control it, or is that even your responsibility?

Marc Davis: We have a responsibility to make systems people feel are safe to use? Credit cards are crazy -- they know all kinds of stuff about us. We're willing to exchange info if there's a minor risk of damage if we get something for it. Designing social protections and intimacy is crucial; software infrastructures for both intimacy and publicness.

Question: Using time period advantage of commuting, is anyone getting research on how materials are consumed? How content is being customized and if it's being examined for best mode of transportation.

Bob Schukai: Lots is being done on it, but really just trying to put the systems in place, creating off-deck portals and sites and content delivery. Where people are coming from, what content are they interacting with, what are they watching for. That will help us tailor best delivery. Until a few years ago off-deck sites were rare in the US., but rampant else-where. It's that measurement piece that will drive advertising, those types of statistics.

Anmol Madan:. It's an active research area. You use this stuff when you're by yourself, and the tools we're demonstrating are those that enable us to understand that behavior, then go out and make apps.

Bob Schukai: Graphics are built around the mobile expereince. We're trying to optimize for these devices. We run a lot of tickers on CNN, but try to read that on a mobile device. It's impossible. We're now thinking about how we shoot and
produce our content in a very different way than we used to three years ago.

Marc Davis: What the phone is not just as a TV that you carry with you, but as a phone that is in a space. Not just what people do in the day but also at night. So if you're thinking of programming content for a phone, you can program content that is spatially aware, temporally aware. The phone for the technology guys is L cookie, it's always logged
in. There's so much meta-data offered on the phone that the delivery of content can be tailored to the experience the person is having in the real world.

Alice Kim: We do an extensive amount of research with our partners, but I wish we could be more methodical. Quite frankly, we try a lot of things and see if it will work. One thing we do do is make sure we get info, apply it to our practices. We look at streams on daily basis to replicate what works. We see that music is a passionate audience, so
we tailor content to that. WAP didn't work, so we went after bite sized content. Even as we think about social networking, there's a lot of sites. Instead of forcing consumers to go to a social networking destination, let's bring social networking to our content.

Flux developed at MTV in which you can have one profile across all the MTV properties. Flux is a profile that follows you through all the MTV properties. Basically trying to replicate success stories The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

Question: What about politics? What about the regulatory regime? What might a change in FCC in 2008 mean for privacy?

Marc Davis: We talked about sous-veillence -- surveillance from below. Policy will be crucial, that policies be created so that individuals will have the power to protect their privacy and data but also use it for collective action. What these technologies can do is provide the power to individuals to act as a collective. If we can know what each other is doing, we can coordinate and act together and understand better what is happening. Tags makes collective action possible. That's what the mobil phone can do.

Question: Are we just dependent on telecom providers?

Bob Schukai: Think it's bad here. Try Europe's activist telecom regulation. You get taken for the cleaners for roaming, so a new regulator comes in and enforces pricing regulation. It's like a whack a mole -- stuff you smash down just pops up elsewhere. Fees on visitors US, for example, go up to compensate. UK has moved to a light touch regulatory policy, with people who understand how the economy works.

UK has moved to a light touch regulatory policy. They have people who understand where the marketplace is evolving. That's more proactive than having a minister say "thou shall not . . . "

Light touch is much better than a mandate. But we need something because FCC was so laissez-faire about how mobile developed to the US and that's why we're as behind as we are now.

Question: Speak to China, telecoms, privacy, internet.

Bob Schukai: China is trying to grow its own tech, so it's hurting itself. It could be further along if it didn't want its own standard. There's a question as to whether 3rd gen phone services will be available there. Yet this is a huge market.

I think it's going to be a huge opportunity, but getting your money out of there will be tricky if you're a western company.

Marc Davis: China can be biggest market in the world. The challenge facing us globally is operating in nations where the government puts constraints on you. There is a tug-of-war between business and political interests. China makes it difficult to operate there.

What china does to foreign companies to make them operate and what our country has done to telecommunications companies aren't the best.

From a business point of view, it's not an option to ignore China. You have to operate there. It's sticky and problematic, but it's unavoidable.

Bob Schukai: You have to understand how fast things are changing in China. Mao wasn't that long ago, now it's a Starbucks on every corner.

China is trying to manage massive growth. The entire country is becoming unbalanced. I don't agree that some of what they do is proper, but they're trying to evolve from a communist nation to a pseudo- capitalistic environment, and the more we get in there the more likely they will evolve in the path that we'd like to see.

Question: How will content providers manage expectations of what you can do on your phone when there's all these different providers and technology manufacturers?

Marc Davis: Google's great approach has been to create an OS. The JSR and Java library for accessing location is a key issue. It's very much like CDDB -- the database was built up by users. ZoneTag is building up database from users,

Question: But is it the scalable model?

Marc Davis: It's scalable because of the market leaders. Top 10 global carriers cover a vast majority.

Anmol Madan:: How do you deal with this today from a start-up? How you intend to act across all these different things, how you manage your users?

Alice Kim: MTV looks for opportunities in applications, but if you get a slim ROI?, how do you still innovate?

Joshua Green: Let's take 1 min each -- what's one thing to watch?

Alice Kim: Presence of companies like Yahoo and Google that create a user environment within the mobile environment, and how MTV will work with the companies to provide content on a much larger scale. Going
forward, this is going to change.

Marc Davis: What Yahoo is focusing on is getting distribution to carriers. Solving the distribution problem is crucial.

Anmol Madan:: I strongly agree. The idea of mining peoples behaviors and trying to understand it will be far more sophisticated in the future. How do you understand users -- this is going to get fine tuned.

Bob Schukai: I'm further out, but not as far as you imagine. IMS --a device that has an IP address, like all devices of the future will. What will this mean? People can pull and share content because they can connect any IP device to any other IP device. This will create issues with digital rights management. Imagine you're watching a fantastic pic on your IP TV, but you could switch the stream to your PC or phone--IP addresses will open up communication.